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Related Archives         
ARCHIVED - Sex/Gender in the Biomedical Science Workforce

October 7, 2005

On This Page:
Research Grants

 1.  How does the NIH determine the sex/gender of applicants for NIH research grants?
 2.  What is the response rate to questions about sex/gender?
 3.  Has the participation of women in NIH research grant programs changed in recent years?
 4.  Has the size of research grants changed for men and women and how do they compare?

Research Project Grants

 5.  Does the difference in the average size of grants persist across all budget categories?
 6.  How has the participation rate for women changed over time across these budget categories?
 7.  Do women enjoy the same success as men in getting research project grants?
 8.  Do Women applicants for research grant funding receive a smaller share of the award amount requested?

R01 Research Grants
  9.  Has the participation of women changed for traditional research project grants (R01)?
10.  Do women receive smaller R01 awards than men?
11.  Does the participation rate for women vary with age?
12.  How do participation rates for women in NIH grant programs compare to their representation in relevant faculty positions?
Training and Career Awards
13. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH institutional research training programs?
14. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH career development Programs?
15. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH fellowship programs?
Intramural Research Program
16. How many women have tenure in the NIH Intramural Research Program?


Other Relevant Resources


1. How does the NIH determine the sex/gender of applicants for NIH research grants?

The NIH collects information on sex/gender using the Personal Data Page of the PHS 398 Grant Application form (see http://grants.nih.gov/grants/funding/phs398/personal.doc - MS Word - 46 KB) . Completion is voluntary. This page is removed and separately recorded after the application is received. The information is used and protected by the Privacy Act as described on the page itself.

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2. What is the response rate to questions about sex/gender?

The NIH has gender information on close to 99% of all awardees going back to 1994.

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3. Has the participation of women in NIH research grant programs changed in recent years?

Looking at all NIH research grants, over the period from 1994 to 2004 the participation of women has increased. In 1994, 20% of the awards and 17% of the awarded dollars went to female Principal Investigators. In 2004, 25% of the awards and 21% of the awarded dollars went to female Principal Investigators.

 

NIH Research Grant Awards* to Men and Women, FY 1994 - 2004

 

 

All Awards

 

Awards to Women

 

Awards to Men

FY

 

Number

Amount

 

Number

Amount

 

Number

Amount


1994

 

30,368

$ 7,644,968,658

 

6,122

$ 1,297,856,900

 

23,006

$ 6,091,623,155

1995

 

29,950

$ 7,926,030,175

 

6,334

$ 1,398,236,338

 

22,719

$ 6,315,806,355

1996

 

30,541

$ 8,388,105,242

 

6,616

$ 1,527,245,559

 

23,061

$ 6,635,041,494

1997

 

32,095

$ 9,039,127,181

 

6,998

$ 1,641,431,230

 

24,165

$ 7,149,416,257

1998

 

33,328

$ 9,667,285,731

 

7,384

$ 1,786,802,478

 

24,907

$ 7,529,455,514

1999

 

35,871

$ 11,228,936,365

 

8,054

$ 2,155,834,240

 

26,787

$ 8,720,521,558

2000

 

38,299

$ 13,001,726,060

 

8,711

$ 2,548,955,592

 

28,330

$ 10,009,858,346

2001

 

40,661

$ 14,906,436,960

 

9,385

$ 2,936,923,173

 

29,899

$ 11,435,353,116

2002

 

43,514

$ 16,828,253,981

 

10,193

$ 3,363,563,108

 

31,799

$ 12,838,202,639

2003

 

46,085

$ 18,831,680,613

 

11,082

$ 3,797,405,788

 

33,425

$ 14,389,702,559

2004

 

47,459

$ 19,606,032,092

 

11,680

$ 4,057,356,318

 

34,190

$ 14,867,218,441

* Competing and Non-Competing

From Success Rate File, CGAF 2004 and IMPAC-II as of September 21, 2005
Program: srf_gender_050921_rfm

 

Number and Amount of NIH Research Grant Awards to Men and Women, Fiscal Years (1994 - 2004)

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4. Has the size of research grants changed for men and women and how do they compare?

For all research grants, the average size has increased 1.6 fold from $251,744 to $413,115 over the period from 1994 to 2004. Research grants to women have remained at about 80% of the size of research grants to men.

 

Average NIH Research Grant Award to Men and Women,
FY 1994 - 2004

 

All Awards

Women

Men

Women's Average/Men's Average

FY

Average

Average

Average

test

1994

$251,744

$211,999

$264,784

80%

1995

$264,642

$220,751

$277,997

79%

1996

$274,651

$230,841

$287,717

80%

1997

$281,637

$234,557

$295,858

79%

1998

$290,065

$241,983

$302,303

80%

1999

$313,037

$267,672

$325,551

82%

2000

$339,480

$292,613

$353,331

83%

2001

$366,603

$312,938

$382,466

82%

2002

$386,732

$329,988

$403,730

82%

2003

$408,629

$342,664

$430,507

80%

2004

$413,115

$347,376

$434,841

80%

 

Average Research Grant Award to Women and Men, Fiscal Year 1994 - 2004

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5. Does the difference in the average size of grants persist across all budget categories?

No. In fact, the average size of grants varies considerably across budget category and the differences in the size of grants to women and men vary, as well. Looking at fiscal 2004, the biggest differences in the average award are for centers where women serve as PIs on grants that are on average only 60% as large as those for men. The average size of SBIR/STTR awards for women exceeds that of men. And the average Research Project Grant award (RPG) or Career Development Award for women is about 90% of the size for men. It should be pointed out that the RPG category constitutes 79% of extramural awards and 75% of the extramural dollars.

 

NIH Research Grants by Budget Category, FY 2004

 

All Awards

Awards to Women

Awards to Men

Budget Category

Number

Amount

Number

Amount

Number

Amount


RPG

37,396

$14,671,548,833

8,936

$3,253,009,927

27,481

$11,001,652,688

SBIR/STTR

2,200

$613,236,443

384

$107,834,887

1,638

$451,322,600

Centers

1,383

$2,612,807,505

221

$268,033,546

1,097

$2,218,004,884

Career

4,137

$598,477,912

1,490

$203,759,659

2,379

$356,817,718

Other

2,343

$1,109,961,399

649

$224,718,299

1,595

$839,420,551

Total

47,459

$19,606,032,092

11,680

$4,057,356,318

34,190

$14,867,218,441


(Other includes all S, R, P, and U awards not included in Research Projects, SBIR’s, or Research Centers.)

 

Average NIH Research Grant Award to Men and Women by Budget Category, FY 1994 - 2004

  Budget Category

All Awards Average

Women Average

Men Average

Women's Average/Men's Average

RPG

$392,329

$364,034

$400,337

91%

SBIR/STTR

$278,744

$280,820

$275,533

102%

Centers

$1,889,232

$1,212,821

$2,021,882

60%

Career

$144,665

$136,751

$149,986

91%

Other

$473,735

$346,253

$526,282

66%

Total

$413,115

$347,376

$434,841

80%

 

Average Research Grant Award to Women and Men by Budget Category, FY 2004

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6. How has the participation rate for women changed over time across these budget categories?

The participation of women has grown in all budget categories. Over the period from 1983 to 2004, the share of grants going to women has increased from 13% to 24% for RPGs, 13% to 19% for SBIR/STTR grants, 4% to 17% for centers, and 17% to 39% for Career awards.

 

 

 

Number of Awards in Different Budget Categories to Men and Women

FY 1980 - FY 2004

 

 

Female

 

Male

FY

 

RPG

SBIR/STTR

Center

Career

 

RPG

SBIR/STTR

Center

Career

1980

 

1,976

0

26

206

 

15,319

0

524

1,270

1981

 

2,034

0

24

204

 

15,381

0

504

1,232

1982

 

2,059

0

16

211

 

14,713

0

451

1,180

1983

 

2,333

8

20

231

 

15,199

53

477

1,121

1984

 

2,485

7

19

251

 

15,588

59

524

1,138

1985

 

2,719

13

19

276

 

16,449

96

538

1,187

1986

 

2,973

17

20

290

 

16,758

101

537

1,176

1987

 

3,275

18

25

343

 

17,653

108

556

1,219

1988

 

3,457

15

30

361

 

18,109

119

595

1,233

1989

 

3,693

21

39

372

 

18,506

133

603

1,188

1990

 

3,918

40

42

396

 

18,123

149

625

1,187

1991

 

4,208

29

54

418

 

18,735

187

672

1,227

1992

 

4,541

53

61

448

 

19,230

195

753

1,253

1993

 

4,708

60

73

498

 

18,893

283

781

1,268

1994

 

4,958

50

89

580

 

19,285

318

854

1,343

1995

 

5,111

73

90

644

 

19,021

398

809

1,357

1996

 

5,343

71

89

684

 

19,356

395

810

1,386

1997

 

5,671

112

97

724

 

20,252

558

810

1,401

1998

 

5,911

139

92

752

 

21,022

686

779

1,434

1999

 

6,355

187

108

748

 

21,958

879

830

1,522

2000

 

6,786

228

113

847

 

23,094

1,021

873

1,639

2001

 

7,313

240

140

930

 

24,250

1,123

926

1,795

2002

 

7,715

283

180

1,073

 

25,400

1,314

1,007

1,943

2003

 

8,389

315

210

1,232

 

26,587

1,424

1,088

2,163

2004

 

8,936

384

221

1,490

 

27,481

1,638

1,097

2,379

File: srf_gender_050921_rfm3.xls

 

Awards to Women as a Percentage of All Awards by Budget Category, Fiscal Year 1980 - 2004

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7. Do women enjoy the same success as men in getting research project grants?

The success rate for women is very comparable to men on Research Project Grants.

 

NIH Competing Research Project Applications, FY 1985 - 2004

 

Applications from Women

Applications from Men


FY

Reviewed

Awarded

Success

Reviewed

Awarded

Success

1985

3,174

970

30.6%

16,217

5,567

34.3%

1986

3,291

1,053

32.0%

15,656

5,240

33.5%

1987

3,413

1,101

32.3%

15,113

5,648

37.4%

1988

3,770

1,155

30.6%

15,978

5,274

33.0%

1989

3,847

1,105

28.7%

15,939

4,626

29.0%

1990

4,051

1,024

25.3%

16,581

4,135

24.9%

1991

4,078

1,140

28.0%

16,512

4,889

29.6%

1992

4,364

1,244

28.5%

16,602

5,005

30.1%

1993

5,207

1,207

23.2%

17,656

4,262

24.1%

1994

5,741

1,380

24.0%

19,042

5,003

26.3%

1995

5,680

1,453

25.6%

18,838

5,200

27.6%

1996

5,455

1,425

26.1%

17,615

5,098

28.9%

1997

5,649

1,684

29.8%

17,624

5,534

31.4%

1998

5,411

1,628

30.1%

17,074

5,535

32.4%

1999

5,970

1,870

31.3%

18,379

6,259

34.1%

2000

6,366

1,940

30.5%

19,180

6,372

33.2%

2001

6,806

2,129

31.3%

19,684

6,558

33.3%

2002

7,365

2,128

28.9%

20,730

6,792

32.8%

2003

8,697

2,625

30.2%

23,946

7,302

30.5%

2004

10,603

2,529

23.9%

28,891

7,289

25.2%


Source: Success rate file, CGAF2004 and IMPAC-II as of September 20, 2005

Program: SRF_Gender_050921_rfm

Excludes applications without coded Genders

 

Success Rates for Women and Men on Competing Research Project Grants, Fiscal Year 1985 - 2004

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8. Do Women applicants for research grant funding receive a smaller share of the award amount requested?

Since 1995, the level of support provided (relative to the support requested) has been essentially equivalent for men and women receiving Research Project Grants.

 

Awarded Versus Requested Support for Competing Research Project Awards to Women and Men, FY 1995 - FY 2005*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Women

 

Men


FY

 

Number

Total Requested

Total Awarded

Awarded/ Requested

 

Number

Total Requested

Total Awarded

Awarded/ Requested

1995

 

1,553

$255,388,139

$215,062,871

84.2%

 

5,329

$1,088,631,881

$890,745,168

81.8%

1996

 

1,533

$261,892,850

$226,183,699

86.4%

 

5,185

$1,062,707,169

$891,279,855

83.9%

1997

 

1,786

$310,493,778

$265,244,734

85.4%

 

5,712

$1,182,134,625

$993,099,118

84.0%

1998

 

1,819

$333,334,178

$293,380,185

88.0%

 

5,798

$1,220,107,940

$1,034,264,675

84.8%

1999

 

2,046

$449,720,050

$387,364,977

86.1%

 

6,528

$1,565,598,961

$1,355,541,400

86.6%

2000

 

2,077

$490,983,343

$444,241,177

90.5%

 

6,612

$1,836,199,901

$1,606,049,643

87.5%

2001

 

2,233

$520,756,265

$472,354,054

90.7%

 

6,720

$1,774,520,804

$1,597,810,783

90.0%

2002

 

2,209

$520,093,259

$476,581,705

91.6%

 

6,908

$1,856,682,067

$1,687,469,697

90.9%

2003

 

2,706

$656,987,727

$587,862,727

89.5%

 

7,408

$2,051,175,077

$1,786,737,291

87.1%

2004

 

2,544

$615,592,312

$549,766,995

89.3%

 

7,317

$2,077,433,050

$1,872,421,008

90.1%

2005

 

2,519

$620,203,174

$551,980,146

89.0%

 

6,800

$2,001,515,755

$1,785,736,765

89.2%

*preliminary

 

Awarded Versus Requested Support for Competing Research Project Awards to Women and Men, FY 1995 - FY 2005*

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9. Has the participation of women changed for traditional research project grants (R01)?

Yes. Over the period from 1990 to 2004 the percentage of R01 awards going to women has increased from 17 percent to 24 percent.

 

NIH Competing and Noncompeting R01 Awards, FY 1990 - 2004

 

 

Female

 

Male

Average Values

FY

 

Number

Amount

 

Number

Amount

 

Female

Male

1990

 

2,941

$506,484,099

 

14,240

$2,509,106,164

 

$172,215

$176,201

1991

 

3,056

$571,050,002

 

14,370

$2,705,006,813

 

$186,862

$188,240

1992

 

3,260

$649,231,509

 

14,638

$2,905,293,449

 

$199,151

$198,476

1993

 

3,364

$704,939,032

 

14,320

$2,961,413,476

 

$209,554

$206,803

1994

 

3,531

$775,869,838

 

14,497

$3,119,370,224

 

$219,731

$215,173

1995

 

3,539

$824,593,832

 

14,077

$3,181,994,156

 

$233,002

$226,042

1996

 

3,695

$904,541,217

 

14,430

$3,433,724,249

 

$244,801

$237,957

1997

 

3,940

$1,007,216,155

 

15,291

$3,772,118,932

 

$255,639

$246,689

1998

 

4,175

$1,113,041,604

 

16,084

$4,180,291,005

 

$266,597

$259,904

1999

 

4,713

$1,335,625,337

 

17,315

$4,702,470,884

 

$283,392

$271,584

2000

 

5,237

$1,568,687,923

 

18,581

$5,343,220,926

 

$299,539

$287,564

2001

 

5,715

$1,817,906,403

 

19,619

$5,992,425,941

 

$318,094

$305,440

2002

 

6,070

$2,032,448,314

 

20,478

$6,610,272,576

 

$334,835

$322,799

2003

 

6,543

$2,277,580,489

 

21,138

$7,110,103,865

 

$348,094

$336,366

2004

 

6,868

$2,447,580,574

 

21,470

$7,435,993,515

 

$356,375

$346,343

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: CGAF and IMPAC-II as of October 3, 2005 Program awd_gender_age_rfm

Limited to cells with 20 or more female principal investigators

Gender - R01s.xls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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10. Do women receive smaller R01 awards than men?

No. Since 1993, R01 awards with women as Principal Investigators have been slightly larger than awards to men.

 

Competing and Non-Competing R01 Awards to Women and Men, Fiscal Year 1990 - 2004

 

Average Competing and Non-Competing R01 Awards, Fiscal Year 1990 - 2004

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11. Does the participation rate for women vary with age?

Yes. On R01 grants, the participation rate for women is higher within the younger age groups. In FY 2004, 29 percent of the 36 to 40 year old recipients were women while only 16 percent of the 66 to 70 year old recipients were women.

Percentage of Competing and Non-Competing R01 Grants to Women, Age Groups 31 through 60

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12. How do participation rates for women in NIH grant programs compare to their representation in relevant faculty positions?

The AAMC collects detailed data on faculty in medical school departments. Some of this faculty is involved in research and others are more involved in medical education. Nonetheless, this pool of individuals comprises a substantial portion of the applicants for NIH grants. In calendar 2004, the AAMC reported that 72% of the faculty in Basic Science departments was male and 28% were female. In Clinical Science departments 68% of the faculty was male and 32% were female. Information is available in Table 14 at http://www.aamc.org/data/facultyroster/usmsf04/start.htm.

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13. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH institutional research training programs?

Yes. The participation rate for women in the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award institutional research training grant program (T32, T34) has increased from 47 percent of the predoctoral positions and 38 percent of the postdoctoral positions in FY1990 to 55 percent of the predoctoral positions and 49 percent of the postdoctoral positions by FY 2004.

 

NIH Research Training Grants, FY 1990 - 2005 (To date)

Number of trainees

FY

Degree

Total

Female

Male

Female as % of coded


1990

Post-Doc

4,591

1,690

2,724

38.3%

 

Pre-Doc

7,609

3,488

3,978

46.7%

1991

Post-Doc

4,764

1,814

2,756

39.7%

 

Pre-Doc

8,185

3,819

4,227

47.5%

1992

Post-Doc

4,816

2,024

2,782

42.1%

 

Pre-Doc

8,938

4,237

4,680

47.5%

1993

Post-Doc

4,673

1,962

2,699

42.1%

 

Pre-Doc

8,868

4,268

4,583

48.2%


1994

Post-Doc

4,792

2,074

2,707

43.4%

 

Pre-Doc

9,024

4,406

4,590

49.0%

1995

Post-Doc

4,643

2,014

2,615

43.5%

 

Pre-Doc

9,076

4,467

4,582

49.4%

1996

Post-Doc

4,650

2,060

2,529

44.9%

 

Pre-Doc

8,995

4,400

4,509

49.4%

1997

Post-Doc

4,687

2,029

2,433

45.5%

 

Pre-Doc

8,821

4,202

4,356

49.1%


1998

Post-Doc

4,563

1,911

2,180

46.7%

 

Pre-Doc

9,340

4,117

4,280

49.0%

1999

Post-Doc

4,503

1,937

2,232

46.5%

 

Pre-Doc

9,812

4,449

4,455

50.0%

2000

Post-Doc

4,396

2,010

2,241

47.3%

 

Pre-Doc

9,721

4,771

4,603

50.9%

2001

Post-Doc

4,592

2,138

2,367

47.5%

 

Pre-Doc

10,050

5,224

4,627

53.0%


2002

Post-Doc

4,845

2,310

2,423

48.8%

 

Pre-Doc

10,352

5,484

4,620

54.3%

2003

Post-Doc

5,069

2,422

2,559

48.6%

 

Pre-Doc

10,713

5,625

4,792

54.0%

2004

Post-Doc

4,692

2,243

2,360

48.7%

 

Pre-Doc

10,451

5,563

4,617

54.6%

2005

Post-Doc

1,538

716

796

47.4%

 

Pre-Doc

4,772

2,536

2,149

54.1%


Source: TFF2004_pub for FY 1990, 1991, IMPAC-II for FY 1992 – 2005

Program gender_training_050928_rfm

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14. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH career development Programs?

Yes, for mentored awards. The participation rate for women in mentored NIH Career Development Awards (K01, K08, and K23 awards) has increased from 24 percent in FY1990 to 42 percent in FY 2004. The participation rate for women in more senior, independent Career Development Awards (K02 and K24) has been nearly constant over this time period at about 32 percent.

 

NIH Research Career Development Awards, FY 1990 - 2005

FY

Total

Female

Male

Female as % of coded


Mentored Research Career (K01, K08, K23)


1990

571

122

387

24.0%

1991

609

139

417

25.0%

1992

647

152

445

25.5%

1993

713

185

487

27.5%

1994

818

232

559

29.3%

1995

877

257

596

30.1%

1996

1,050

324

687

32.0%

1997

1,240

414

783

34.6%

1998

1,467

509

893

36.3%

1999

1,690

581

1,019

36.3%

2000

2,035

698

1,187

37.0%

2001

2,268

781

1,322

37.1%

2002

2,520

901

1,421

38.8%

2003

2,846

1,022

1,595

39.1%

2004

3,059

1,178

1,654

41.6%

2005

3,102

1,202

1,695

41.5%


Other Research Career (K02, K24)


1990

120

38

80

32.2%

1991

121

38

82

31.7%

1992

119

38

80

32.2%

1993

136

41

93

30.6%

1994

147

45

98

31.5%

1995

152

44

105

29.5%

1996

196

58

131

30.7%

1997

227

71

150

32.1%

1998

265

82

176

31.8%

1999

366

104

252

29.2%

2000

469

136

318

30.0%

2001

525

154

359

30.0%

2002

559

161

381

29.7%

2003

594

171

407

29.6%

2004

542

169

357

32.1%

2005

521

161

349

31.6%

 

Source: TFF2004_pub for FY 1990, 1991, IMPAC-II for FY 1992 - 2005


Program: gender_training_050928_rfm

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15. Over time have the participation rates increased for women in NIH fellowship programs?

No. The participation rate for women in the Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award individual fellowship award program has remained fairly constant since 1990. Women comprised between 41 and 46 percent of the postdoctoral fellowship (F32) recipients between FY 1990 and FY 2004. The share of predoctoral fellowships (F30, F31)going to women has declined from 73 percent in FY 1990 to 59 percent in FY 2004.

 

NIH Research Fellowship Awards, FY 1990 - 2005

FY

Total

Female

Male

Female as % of coded


Postdoctoral Fellow (F32)


1990

1,715

537

769

41.1%

1991

1,719

571

797

41.7%

1992

1,712

608

841

42.0%

1993

1,713

659

922

41.7%

1994

1,764

686

934

42.3%

1995

1,929

760

1,039

42.2%

1996

2,004

806

1,057

43.3%

1997

1,984

797

1,051

43.1%

1998

1,919

737

1,055

41.1%

1999

1,940

769

1,068

41.9%

2000

1,887

755

1,035

42.2%

2001

1,857

812

971

45.5%

2002

1,713

754

891

45.8%

2003

1,669

703

920

43.3%

2004

1,621

671

925

42.0%

2005

1,670

702

946

42.6%


Pre-Doc Fellowship (F30, F31)


1990

337

176

65

73.0%

1991

516

281

140

66.7%

1992

533

278

164

62.9%

1993

602

322

233

58.0%

1994

683

369

262

58.5%

1995

639

358

239

60.0%

1996

685

377

272

58.1%

1997

680

369

279

56.9%

1998

693

376

282

57.1%

1999

715

390

282

58.0%

2000

765

420

288

59.3%

2001

936

516

357

59.1%

2002

1,046

580

413

58.4%

2003

1,131

640

440

59.3%

2004

1,229

699

490

58.8%

2005

1,292

757

500

60.2%

 

 

 

 

 

Source: TFF2004_pub for FY 1990, 1991, IMPAC-II for FY 1992 – 2005

Program gender_training_050928_rfm

 

Awards in Selected Training and Career Development Activities Women as Percent of Coded Number of Awards, Fiscal Year 1990 - 2005

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16.  How many women have tenure in the NIH Intramural Research Program?

Women participate in the NIH Intramural Research at rates comparable to the extramural environment. Women are close to parity with Men in clinical positions and at the graduate and postdoctoral levels but they participate at lower rates at the more senior investigator levels as shown in the table below.

 

NIH Intramural Program FY 2005

 

 

  Total

  Women

  % of total

  Men

  % of total


Sr Investigators

941

187

19.9

754

80.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tenure-track

283

75

26.5

208

73.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Staff clinicians

193

82

42.5

111

57.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Staff scientists

787

253

32.1

524

67.9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research fellows

930

347

37.3

583

62.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clinical fellows

325

132

40.5

193

59.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Postdoctoral fellows

2487

1065

42.8

1422

57.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graduate students

370

191

51.6

179

48.4

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